Immigration Problems

What is Going On at the Southern Border?

When dealing with the Illegal Immigration issue, we need to determine the facts on how illegal immigrants arrive in the United States and where they are coming from.  Overstaying a VISA is one issue, trespassing into the United States along the border is another issue entirely.

First, when looking at trespasses into the United States over a border, without permission, needs to be identified by where they are crossing.  The United States Border Patrol has an interesting fact sheet for Fiscal Year 2017 (Oct. 1 to Sept. 30).  U.S. Border Patrol divided up the 3 different regions where people illegally trespass our border to enter the United States.  There is the Northern border (U.S / Canadian border), the Southwest Border (U.S. / Mexico border), and the Coastal border (includes Miami and New Orleans). 

When looking at this data, it is obvious that the southwest border is the most active, with the coastal border being the second most active, and the northern border being the least active, by far.  We will specify which border (“SW” for Southwest; “C” for Coastal; and “N” for Northern) the statistic is referencing.

The Facts[1]:

  • 303,916 out of the 310,531 (97.7%) apprehensions come from the SW border.
  • SW = 175,978 out of the 303,916 (57.9%) apprehensions at the SW border were apprehensions of non-Mexicans.
  • Drug Confiscation (in pounds, unless noted otherwise):
    • Marijuana:
      • SW: 857,888 lbs = 2.82 lbs per person (857,888 / 303,916 ppl)
      • N: 1,066 lbs = 0.35 lbs per person ( 1,066 / 3,027 ppl)
      • C: 2,277 lbs = 0.63 lbs per person (2,277 / 3,588 ppl)
    • Cocaine:
      • SW: 6,174 lbs = 0.02 lbs per person (6,174 / 303,916 ppl)
      • N: 3 lbs = 0.001 lbs per person (3 / 3,027 ppl)
      • C:   3,169 lbs = 0.88 lbs per person (3,169 / 3,588 ppl) 
    • Heroin (in ounces):
      • SW:   15,182 ozs = 0.05 ozs per person (15,182 / 303,916 ppl)
      • N:           62 ozs = 0.02 ozs per person (62 / 3,027 ppl)
      • C: 0 ozs = 0.00 ozs per person
    • Methamphetamine:
      • SW: 10,273 lbs = 0.034 ozs per person (10,273 / 303,916 ppl)
      • N:         32 lbs = 0.01 ozs per person (32 / 3,027 ppl)
      • C:           23 lbs = 0.006 ozs per person (23 / 3,588 ppl)
    • Ecstasy:
      • Only 1 lb of ecstasy was seized and it was at the SW border
    • Other:
      • SW:    554 lbs = 0.002 lbs per person (554 / 303,916 ppl)
      • N:      14 lbs = 0.005 lbs per person (14 / 3,027 ppl)
      • C:        0 lbs = 0.00 lbs per person
    • Unaccompanied Juveniles
      • SW: 50% of the juveniles are unaccompanied (41,435 / 82,566 total juveniles)
      • N: 44% of the juveniles are unaccompanied (46 / 111 total juveniles)
      • C: 65% of the juveniles are unaccompanied (65 / 92 total juveniles)
    • Gender
      • SW: 39% of the apprehensions were male (223,059 / 303,916 ppl)
      • N: 03% of the apprehensions were male (2,574 / 3,027 ppl)
      • C: 52% of the apprehensions were male (3,212 / 3,588 ppl)

Facts[2] (Non-Mexican Illegals Entering Across SW border):

  • Fiscal Year 2000: 28,598
  • Fiscal Year 2010: 50,912
  • Fiscal Year 2016: 218,110
  • Fiscal Year 2017: 175,978
  • From 2000 – 2017: 615% increase in Non-Mexican Illegals Apprehended at SW border

Facts[2] (Mexican Illegals Entering Across SW border):

  • Fiscal Year 2000: 1,615,081
  • Fiscal Year 2010: 396,819
  • Fiscal Year 2016: 190,760
  • Fiscal Year 2017: 127,938
  • From 2000 – 2017: > 92% decrease in Mexican Illegals Apprehended at SW border

Facts[3] (Where Non-Mexican Illegal Immigrants caught at SW (southwest ) Border Come From – 2017):

  • 65,871 = Guatemala
    • For “Major Infectious Diseases”, the degree of risk is listed as “high”(2016).[4]
    • For “Illicit Drugs”, Guatemala is a “major transit country for cocaine and heroin.”[5]
      • “It is estimated that 1,000 mt [1,000 metric tons = 2.2 million lbs] of cocaine are smuggled through the country each year, primarily destined for the US market."[5]
      • “The Guatemalan government estimated that an average of 4,500 hectares [4,500 hectares = 11,119 acres] of opium poppy were being cultivated."[5]
      • Guatemala’s “proximity to Mexico makes Guatemala a major staging area for drugs (particularly for cocaine)."[5]
      • “Money laundering is a serious problem."[5]
      • “[C]orruption is a major problem."[5]
    • 49,760 = El Salvador
      • “El Salvador is beset by one of the world’s highest homicide rates and pervasive criminal gangs.”[6]
      • For “Major Infectious Diseases”, the degree of risk is listed as “high”. (2016) [7]
      • El Salvador is a “Transshipment point for cocaine” and has a “significant use of cocaine”.[8]
    • 47,260 = Honduras
      • “Honduras is one of the poorest countries in Latin America and has one of the world’s highest murder rates.”[9]
        • Honduras is “the second poorest country in Central America.”[10]
        • “Honduras’s economy depends heavily on US trade and remittances."[10] (Remittances are when a migrant works in the US, then send money to people in the migrant’s home country, rather than spend that money in the US.  It is a transfer of wealth from the US to the foreign country.)
      • For “Major infectious diseases”, Honduras’s “degree of risk” is high. (2016)[11]
        • Bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, dengue fever, and malaria (2016 data)
      • For Illicit Drugs, Honduras is a “transshipment point for drugs and narcotics.”[12]
        • “Corruption is a major problem”
        • “Some money-laundering activity”


What Does Our Unauthorized Population Look Like?[13]

  • Total Unauthorized (Undocumented) Population = 11,009,000
  • Countries of Birth
    • 53% = Mexico
    • 14% = Guatemala, El Salvador, or Honduras
  • Years in the U.S.
    • 62% = 10 years or more
  • Ages
    • 66% = 16 – 44 years old
  • Gender
    • 53% = male
  • Family
    • 33% have at least one minor child that is a U.S. citizen (anchor baby)
    • 7% have minor children who are were not born here (most are in our public schools)
    • 40% have never been married
    • 19% married to U.S. citizen or a legal permanent resident (LPR)
  • Education & Language
    • 92% have children aged 3 – 17, who are enrolled in school
    • 47% have less than 12th grade education (for population 25 years and older)
    • 15% of those over 25 years old have a Bachelor’s degree or higher
    • 44% speak English “not well” or “not at all”
  • Workforce
    • 67% employed (Populations ages 16 and older)
    • 5% unemployed
    • 28% not in labor force (Populations ages 16 and older)
  • Economics
    • 28% of families are below the poverty level
    • 32% of families at 100% - 199% of poverty level (income eligible for food assistance)
    • 53% uninsured
    • 34% are homeowners


Is the United States Compassionate or Heartless?

One argument often made about the United States is that we are not compassionate enough towards the poor people of the world.  The five countries that give the most in foreign aid are China ($69.9 billion in 2009), The United States ($34 billion in 2016), Germany ($24.67 billion in 2016), the United Kingdom ($18.01 billion in 2016), and Japan ($10.37 billion in 2016), respectively.[14]  China is not a DAC (Development Assistance Committee) country and they have not officially disclosed its aid information.  The data comes from researchers from AidData at William & Mary.[14]

As for the United States, “the U.S. [is] the largest foreign aid donor among DAC countries."[13]  However, the U.S. amount does NOT include the “fiscal worth of military assistance”, which could add a significant amount to the financial aid officially listed.



The United States has 45,785,090 immigrants to the 327,667,480 total population, which means 14% of the population are immigrants (legal and illegal).  Russia has 11,048,064 immigrants to the 143,964,709 total population, or 7.67% immigrants.  Germany has 9,845,244 immigrants to the 82,293,457 total population, or 11.96% immigrants.  The United Kingdom has 7,824,131 immigrants to the 66,573,504 total population, or 11.7% immigrants.  France has 7,439,086 immigrants to the 65,233,271 total population, or 11.4% immigrants.  Canada has 7,284,069 immigrants to the 36,953,765 total population, or 19.7% immigrants.  Spain has 6,466,605 immigrants to the 46,397,452 total population, or 13.9% immigrants.  That's seven of the countries in the top ten in the number of immigrants in their countries.  The other three are Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Australia.  Saudi Arabia and U.A.E. are in the middle east, which has been torn apart by various wars and the people are often migrating from one nation to another.  Australia is not usually considered on par with the civilized western world.

Out of those seven countries, the United States is only second in the percentage of immigrants that make up the country’s total population.  However, the raw number of immigrants in the United States (45.7 mil) is more than Russia (11 mil), Germany (9.8 mil), Saudi Arabia (9 mil), U.A.E. (7.8 mil), and the United Kingdom (7.8 mil) combined!  We take in more immigrants than the next five highest importers of immigrants combined!

The 16 most socially advanced countries are Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Iceland, New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Denmark, Netherlands, Australia, United Kingdom, Ireland, Austria, Germany, Japan, and the United States, in that order.[17]  That is based on the “Social Progress index [that] measures the extent to which countries provide for the social and environmental needs of their citizens."[17]  Norway, Sweden, Iceland, New Zealand, Finland, Demark, Ireland, and Austria (8 of the 16) did not even make it in the top 30 countries with the highest number of immigrants.  So, a lot of the nations that are touted out as being much nicer, than the United States, are nowhere as welcoming to immigrants as the United States. 

Four out of the 8 remaining “Socially Advanced” countries, U.K. (11.7%), Germany (11.96%), the Netherlands (1,964,922 immigrants out of 17,084,459 total population, 11.5% immigrants), and Japan (2,437,169 immigrants out of 127,185,332 total population, 1.9% immigrants) all have immigration percentages lower than the United States.  The only three countries on that list of 16 countries that have a higher percentage of immigrants is Switzerland (2,335,059 immigrants out of 8,544,034 total population, 27.3% immigrants), Australia (6,468,640 immigrants out of 24,772,247 total population, 26.11% immigrants), and Canada (19.7% immigrants, numbers listed above).


Is America a Racist Nation?

According to the foreign aid that the United States gives out, the vast majority of it goes to countries with overwhelmingly, or exclusively, brown or black races.  The top 5 recipients of U.S. foreign aid are Iraq ($5.3 billion), Afghanistan ($5.1 billion), Israel ($3.1 billion), Egypt ($1.2 billion), and Jordan ($1.2 billion).[18]  But the aid is not just in currency.  It also involves military aid and security aid.  All of the aid to Israel is in the form of military aid.  Afghanistan received $3.7 billion (of its $5.1 billion) in the form of security aid.  And “the vast majority of aid to both Egypt and Iraq is for security."[18]

Among the 10 largest recipients of economic and development aid from the U.S. are Afghanistan, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Ethiopia.

If the United States was such a racist nation, why would it send the bulk of its foreign aid to nations that are almost exclusively African or Middle Eastern? 


Does a Person’s Immigration Status Reflect Risk of Criminality?

Although an argument can be made that natives commit more crime on average than immigrants (legal or illegal), it ignores the fact that without the crimes committed by illegal immigrants, the United States would be safer overall.  But, when we separate illegal immigrants from legal immigrants, there is a distinct difference between these two groups.  Legal immigrants, those who come here through the proper channels and with permission, are the least likely to commit crimes.  The illegal immigrant’s risk of committing crime skyrockets to nearly 2.5 times more than the legal immigrant’s risk.[19]

According to the Center for Immigration Studies, 26% of federal prisoners are aliens (foreigners).[20]  The Bureau of Prisons reports that 66% of the “38,132 known or suspected aliens” are “unlawfully present in the United States."[20]  Just looking at Texas (a border state), they booked over 250,000 criminal aliens in local jails between June 2011 and April 2018, for over 663,000 offenses (an average of more than 2.5 offenses per person), including[20]

                1,351 homicide charges (average of > 193 per year)

                79,049 assault charges (average of > 11,292 per year)

                18,685 burglary charges (average of > 2,669 per year)

                79,900 drug charges (average of > 11,414 per year)

                815 kidnapping charges (average of > 116 per year)

                7,156 sexual assault charges (average of > 1,022 per year)

That’s just one state.  Most states do not report data on immigration status of the inmates.  That is why we utilize federal prison statistics and the state of Texas to glean information as to how widespread the problem is. 

FAIR (Federation for American Immigration Reform) reports that there are 55,000 criminal aliens in Federal Bureau of Prisons facilities (approximately ¼ of the federal prison population).[21]  “There are about 297,000 criminal aliens incarcerated in state and local prisons."[21]  To put this in perspective, criminal aliens “represent about 16.4% of state and local prison population”, even though foreign-born (legal and illegal) residents only make up “12.9% of the total population”.  This means that criminal aliens are committing crimes at a higher rate than native-born populations.

This incarceration of criminal aliens comes with a hefty price tag to the American citizen.  The cost of incarcerating criminal aliens at the federal level is estimated at $1.5 to $1.6 BILLION per year.[20]  FAIR’s “fiscal cost study in 2010 estimated administration of justice costs at the federal level related to criminal aliens at $7.8 BILLION annually.  The comparable cost to state and local governments was $8.7 BILLION per year."[20]  In Illinois, there are an estimated 550,000 illegals in our state, with illegals making up 5.2% of our prison population, even though they only make up 4.3% of our total population.[20]    


Effects of Illegal Immigrants on African-Americans in Chicagoland Area

The Los Angeles Times (LA Times) is a daily newspaper that has a “left-center” rating via Media Bias / Fact Check.[22]  It published a story claiming that illegal immigration harms “black men” the most.  To substantiate this claim, it talks about a bakery, The Cloverhill Bakery (in Cicero, IL – less than 15 miles from Hyde Park, the northern tip of Illinois’ 2nd Congressional District), owned by Aryzta, that supplies buns to McDonald’s.[23] The Cloverhil Bakery was the target of an ICE (Immigration and Customs Enforcement) “audit” which resulted in 800 immigrants losing their jobs in 2017.  The Cloverhill Bakery had to hire new workers.  Of the new workers, 80% to 90% were African Americans.  The LA Times cites a Chicago Sun Times article. 

The Chicago Sun Times is also daily newspaper that has a “left-center” rating via Media Bias / Fact Check.[24]  The Chicago Sun Times describes a hostile work environment that pits African-Americans against Hispanics.  It also describes that the immigrant workers who lost their jobs had been employed “there for years, at least, and some for decades.”[25]  The Sun Times goes on to explain that the new (replaced the illegals) African-American workers were paid “$14 an hour, versus the $10 an hour the Mexican workers were making”.  It also describes how the immigrant workers did not speak English, making communicating on the job very difficult. 

The LA Times article also points to the 2016, Obama White House, 48-page report “acknowledging that immigration does not help the labor force participation rate of the native-born.”  Specifically, the 2016 report states, “The fall in participation for prime-age men has largely been concentrated among those with a high school degree or less, and participation rates have declined more steeply for black men.”[26]


How Much Does Illegal Immigration Cost Americans?

According to FAIR (Federation for American Immigration Reform) , “[a]t the federal, state, and local levels, taxpayers shell out approximately $134.9 billion to cover the costs incurred by the presence of more than 12.5 million illegal aliens, and about 4.2 million citizen children of illegal aliens.  That amounts to a tax burden of approximately $8,075 per illegal alien family member and a total of $115,894,597,664.”[27]  That’s a cost of $155 BILLION!  It even details each category, showing that over $17 Billion are for Federal Medical Expenses, with $8.2 Billion of that for “Uncompensated Hospital Expenditure”.  Some may say that FAIR is bias, so let’s look at other sources. 

Healthcare:  Kaiser Family Foundation (rated “least biased” by Media Bias / Fact Check) states, “nearly four in ten (39%) undocumented immigrants are uninsured”.[28]  When someone shows up at an emergency room in the United States, the hospital is required to provide emergency care to stabilize the patient.  If these undocumented individuals do not have any health insurance, who will pay that ER bill, especially since 60% of the undocumented immigrants are below 200% of the poverty line?  They can’t pay the bill.  So we, the American taxpayers, are the ones that end up paying for bill via our tax dollars and increases in health care costs and increased costs in health insurance premiums.  Even CNN agrees that undocumented illegals are guaranteed care regardless of their ability to pay, stating, “[m]any undocumented adults lack health insurance, and even though they’re guaranteed emergency care, they often can’t get treated for chronic issues”.[29] 

Education:  FAIR also details that we spend $1.691 Billion on education for illegal immigrants.[27]  When an illegal immigrant brings a child here, those children attend our public schools, which are funded by American taxpayers through our property taxes. 

Criminal Justice:  We also spend $13.148 Billion on Federal Justice Enforcement Expenditures for illegal immigrants.[27]  The cost of law enforcement is paid for by American taxpayers.  The illegal immigrants are not paying for the local, state, or federal law enforcement. 



We have a problem with people flooding our southwestern border, with large populations coming from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.  Each of those three countries has issues with drugs, crime, and health concerns (communicable diseases).  We have documented proof that they are bringing these problems with them when they cross the Mexico / United States border illegally (not through a port of entry and with permission).  While illegals originating from Mexico have dramatically decreased since 2000, illegals originating from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras have skyrocketed since 2000, increasing to 6 times the amount entering in 2000. 

The demographics of these illegal immigrants show that they are mostly young males, with less than a high school education, with nearly half of them unable to speak English.  While 67% are employed, there are 33% completely unemployed, which shows about 2 out of every 3 illegals are working, while 1 out of every 3 are unemployed, and most likely living off of the generosity of the America citizens.  Yet 60% of them are making less than 200% of the poverty level, making them eligible for government assistance programs. 

Many try to claim that illegal immigrants do not qualify for government assistance programs.  However, some states do not bother to check a person’s immigration status before authorizing that person for assistance.  Illinois is one of those states.  As the Illinois Legal Aid Online explains, “Some programs in Illinois will grant you benefits without checking your immigration status.  Here are some examples:

  • The Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants & Children (WIC),
  • All Kids [health insurance for children],
  • Public school education: from kindergarten through 12th grade; including free school lunch and breakfast programs, and
  • Head Start.”[30]

The claim that immigrants who come here illegally are good, hardworking individuals that do not commit crimes, do not bring drugs into our nation, and are not milking the American citizen out of his or her hard earned money, is just not factually accurate.  The first thing to understand is that immigrants who come here through the proper (legal) channels are the ones that fit that claim, while the illegal immigrants do not.  Illegal immigrants are not just bringing drugs and communicable diseases into our country and communities; they are using an alarming amount of public resources, whether while they are in prison or living in our communities (via government benefits). 

Rather than spending money on incarcerating illegal immigrants, we could use that money to provide better programs to incarcerated Americans and legal immigrants so they will have a higher success rate once they are released from prison.  Rather than spending money on educating, feeding, and providing healthcare to illegal immigrant families, we could spend that money on better education, more food assistance, and better healthcare for American citizens and legal immigrants.

Illegal immigration hurts American citizens and legal immigrants every day.  It endangers our lives by introducing drugs and crime into our communities, drains valuable public resources from deserving American citizens and legal immigrants, and provides unfair competition in the job market.  African-Americans, especially African-American males are the most threatened by illegal immigration.  While LEGAL immigration has a lot of cultural benefits and adds to the beautiful mosaic of our national culture, ILLEGAL immigration is destroying America by destroying her precious citizens and LEGAL immigrants (our welcomed guests).


[1] United States Border Patrol, Sector Profile – Fiscal Year 2017 (Oct. 1st through Sept. 30th),, accessed October 27, 2018.

[2] United States Border Patrol, “Illegal Alien Apprehensions From Countries Other Than Mexico By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st through Sept. 30th)”,, accessed October 27, 2018.

[3] United States Border Patrol, “U.S. Border Patrol Nationwide Apprehensions by Citizens and Sector in FY 2017 (Data includes Deportable Aliens Only)”, pages 31 – 33,, accessed October 27, 2018.

[4] Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Factbook:  Guatemala”, People and Society Section, Major Infectious Diseases subsection,, accessed October 29, 2018.

[5] Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Factbook:  Guatemala”, Transnational Issues, Illicit drugs subsection,, accessed October 29, 2018.

[6] Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Factbook:  El Salvador”, Introduction Section, Background Subsection, accessed October 29, 2018.

[7] Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Factbook:  El Salvador”, People and Society Section, Major Infectious Diseases subsection,, accessed October 29, 2018.

[8] Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Factbook:  El Salvador”, International Issues Section,  Illicit drugs subsection,, accessed October 29, 2018.

[9] Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Factbook:  Honduras”, People and Society Section, Demographic profile subsection,, accessed October 30, 2018.

[10] Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Factbook:  Honduras”, Economy Section, Economy - Overview subsection,, accessed October 30, 2018.

[11] Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Factbook:  Honduras”, People and Society Section, Major Infectious Diseases subsection,, accessed October 30, 2018.

[12] Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Factbook:  Honduras”, Transnational Issues Section, Illicit Drugs subsection,, accessed October 30, 2018.

[13] Migration Policy Institute (MPI), “Profile of the Unauthorized Population: United States”, analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data from the 2014 American Community Survey (ACS), and the 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP),, accessed November 3, 2018.

[14] The Borgen Project, “Five Countries That Provide the Largest Foreign Aid”, Wang, Chaorong, March 14, 2018,, accessed November 3, 2018.

[15] World Atlas, “30 Countries Hosting the Most Immigrants”, updated April 25, 2017 by Rolando Y. Wee,, accessed November 2, 2018.

[16] WorldOMeters, “Countries in the World by Population (2018)” ,, accessed November 2, 2018, citing Elaboration of data by United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, “World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision” (Medium-fertility variant).

[17] World Economic Forum, “The 16 Most Socially Advanced Countries in the World”, Speiser, Matthew, April 25, 2015,, accessed November 2, 2018.

[18] Council on Foreign Relations, “How Does the U.S. Spend Its Foreign Aid?”, McBride, James (Backgrounder),, accessed November 3, 2018.

[19] CATO Institute, “Incarcerated Immigrants in 2016: Their Numbers, Demographics, and Countries of Origin”, Landgrave, Michelangelo and Nowrasteh, Alex, June 4, 2018,, accessed November 3, 2018.

[20] Center for Immigration Studies, Huennekens, Preston, “DOJ: 26% of Federal Prisoners Are Aliens”, June 12, 2018,, accessed November 10, 2018.

[21] FAIR (Federation for American Immigration Reform), “Criminal Aliens”, May 2016,, accessed November 10, 2018.

[22] Media Bias / Fact Check, “LA Times (Los Angeles Times)”,, accessed November 10, 2018.

[23] Los Angeles Times, Seminara, Dave, “Liberals Say Immigration Enforcement is Racist, But the Group Most Likely to Benefit From It is Black Men”, March 16, 2018,, accessed November 10, 2018.

[24] Media Bias / Fact Check, “Chicago Sun Times”,, accessed November 10, 2018.

[25] Chicago Sun Times, “At Major Northwest Side Bakery, Labor Issues Pit Blacks vs. Hispanics”, Main, Frank and Mihalopoulos, Dan, February 16, 2018,, accessed November 10, 2018.

[26] Obama White House Archives, “The Long-Term Decline in Prime-Age Male Labor Force Participation”, June 2016, Page 2 (page 3, if downloaded in PDF),, accessed November 10, 2018.

[27] FAIR, O’Brien, Matt and Raley, Spencer, The Fiscal Burden of Illegal Immigration on United States Taxpayers, September 27, 2017,, accessed January 28, 2019.

[28] Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Health Coverage of Immigrants, Published December 13, 2017,, accessed January 29, 2019.

[29] CNN, Wiltz, Teresa, Stateline, CNN Money, Aging Undocumented Immigrants Pose Costly Health Care Challenge, January 4, 2018,, accessed January 29, 2019.

[30] Illinois Legal Aid Online, “Government Benefits for Immigrants”,, accessed November 10, 2018.

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